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Monoclonal vs. Polyclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal vs. Polyclonal Antibodies

One of the key factors in determining the best service or strategy for producing antibodies is the decision of whether to choose monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. At Cell Culture Company, we are your premier source for monoclonal antibodies customized for your individual needs.

Below are some of the benefits and drawbacks of each type of antibody:

Polyclonal Antibodies

The production of polyclonal antibodies occurs through various B cells in a host animal. These antibodies recognize numerous epitopes of a single antigen. Synthetic peptide and protein are the two most commonly selected antigens. It is possible to produce large quantities of polyclonal antibodies quickly, at low cost, and without the need for complex technology. These benefits make polyclonal antibodies ideal for research efforts.

Advantages of Polyclonal Antibodies

The benefits of polyclonal antibodies include:

  • Quick production time
  • Low cost
  • Great tolerance to antigen changes (polymorphism, denature, and glycosylation heterogeneity)
  • Strong target signal, including for protein with low expression
  • Strong results in WB and IP/ChIP
  • Detection more likely over a range of species
  • Applicable for non-characterized antigens

Disadvantages of Polyclonal Antibodies

The potential drawbacks of polyclonal antibodies include:

  • Some applications may have a higher reactivity and background noise
  • Susceptible to variability from batch to batch

Monoclonal Antibodies

Unlike polyclonal antibodies which are generated from multiple immune cells, monoclonal antibodies are produced by identical immune cells which are clones of just one parent cell. The antibody in this case is very specific, recognizing just a single epitope of an antigen.

Monoclonal antibodies are usually generated through the fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with the target antigen to generate a hybridoma. Each one of these hybridomas is subsequently grown independently to generate colonies consisting of identical daughter cells. This process enables researchers to gather and compare the secreted antibodies of each hybridoma in order to choose the most advantageous ones to fulfill their ultimate goals of detection and purification.

Monoclonal antibodies are more ideal for applications for the development of antibody drugs or for projects requiring high specificity to the antigens.

Advantages of Monoclonal Antibodies

The various benefits of monoclonal antibodies include:

  • Very specific recognition of only a single epitope of an antigen
  • High level of consistency across experiments
  • Cell lines of immortal hybridoma are theoretically capable of generating unlimited numbers of antibodies
  • Ideal for affinity purification
  • Low level of cross-reactivity and background noise

Disadvantages of Monoclonal Antibodies

Some of the potential drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies include:

  • Longer time for production
  • Higher cost
  • More susceptible to epitope loss from antigen chemical treatment – but this may be countered by pooling at least two monoclonal antibodies.
  • Potentially lower signal

For information about the monoclonal antibody production services we offer at Cell Culture Company, call us today at 763.786.0302 or send us a message through our contact form.

How are Monoclonal Antibodies Made

During the coronavirus pandemic, the term “monoclonal antibodies” was frequently in the news. Despite this, many people still do not understand the importance of these proteins – or even what they are.

Here’s what you need to know about how monoclonal antibodies are made and how they can positively impact health and healing:

What are Monoclonal Antibodies?

The human body naturally produces proteins called antibodies that selectively identify antigens. An antigen is any substance that induces an immune response, including external sources such as pathogens, chemicals, and allergens, and internal sources such as cancer cells and even healthy cells in the case of autoimmune disease.

Sometimes, the body does not produce the correct antibodies or does not produce enough of them to be effective. In other circumstances, exposure to dangerous pathogens is too risky to allow the body to take the time to produce these antibodies naturally. In these cases, synthesized antibodies produced in a laboratory can be used to combat these harmful substances.

One of the most important types of these synthesized antibodies is the monoclonal antibody, which can be created to address a specific epitope of an antigen, increasing binding site specificity, and reducing cross-reactivity with other proteins.

How are Monoclonal Antibodies Made?

The first step in creating monoclonal antibodies is creating the immune response that would be seen in a healthy human body. Once this is done, lymphocytes are harvested, typically from the spleen or the lymph nodes.

Next, lymphocytes will be reproduced or cloned. These cloned cells will be introduced to other cells which can fortify them and make it easier for them to be reintroduced into the human body as a vaccine or other course of treatment. This may be done through chemical means with polyethylene glycol or using electric pulses which can temporarily weaken cell walls and allow for better fusion of two adjacent cells.

After all of this, the best cells are isolated and selected for reproduction. These cells are then used to create the vaccines, infusions, and other medical interventions that make monoclonal antibodies so effective and important.

How are Monoclonal Antibodies Used?

While the most familiar use for monoclonal antibodies in recent memory is in fighting the COVID-19 virus, there are actually many ways these antibodies are used in medicine.

Just a few of the applications of monoclonal antibodies include:

  • Cancer treatment
  • Transplant rejection treatment
  • Treatment of skin conditions like psoriasis
  • Addressing cardiovascular conditions, and more

Additional conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis can also be addressed using these antibodies. In these conditions, the body produces antibodies in response to cells that are not actually hazardous, which can cause serious health concerns. Treatment with monoclonal antibodies can help to rebalance the body’s immune response and lessen symptoms in patients with these chronic conditions.

Monoclonal Antibody Screening and Production

Monoclonal Antibody Screening and Production

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stem from a single, unique parent cell. As a result, these antibodies only bind to a single epitope. The production of monoclonal antibodies is crucial to research and treatment efforts regarding various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. At Cell Culture Company, we provide customized production of monoclonal antibodies. Our team has manufactured hundreds of client monoclonal antibodies over our 40 years in business. We have the know-how and capability to carry out mass-scale antibody production.

Monoclonal Antibody Screening

The discovery process connected with monoclonal antibodies refers to the screening and identification of certain antibodies that pinpoint a specific epitope (part of an antigen molecule) for the diagnosis and treatment of various ailments – a recent example being COVID-19.

Monoclonal Antibody Production

The treatment of cancer has been enhanced recently by the design and production of monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies we produce at Cell Culture Company have been utilized as reagents for diagnostics, research, and the development of products.

The production of custom monoclonal antibodies is a technical, time-consuming, and demanding task. Customers may give our team their antibody-producing hybridoma or other cell lines. Our scientists are able to provide monoclonal antibodies customized to the specifications of the customer.

The generation of monoclonal antibodies often involves the immunization of mice, generating hybridomas, clone screening, and ramping up the production of clones. At Cell Culture Company, we offer an alternative process usingperfusion-based bioreactors to producemonoclonal antibodies that are easy-to-scale.

The process begins with inoculating a single-use hollow fiber cartridge by which a continual flow of media transports nutrients throughout the semi-permeable fibers. For the purposes of antibody production, the bioreactor environment referred to here is monitored and sustained at ideal conditions. The bioreactor is responsible for a concentrated and continual stream of harvested product over a period of several weeks to months.

At Cell Culture Company, we offer an array of services, including downstream processing and purification of monoclonal antibodies. To learn about our specialized process for the production of antibodies, give us a call today at 763.786.0302 or reach us through our contact form.

An Introduction to Mammalian Cell Culture

An Introduction to Mammalian Cell Culture

Mammalian cell culture is a highly regarded technique with academic and research applications. It is a requisite skill for researchers whose work requires consistent, scaleable quantities of human and animal cells for pharmaceutical, immunology, toxicological, and molecular biology research. If you are interested in learning about mammalian cell culture and its vast range of applications, here’s a brief look into its study.

What is mammalian cell culture?

This refers to the process of growing cells taken from mammals in-vitro. That is, growing cells outside the original tissue in a growth medium with the right nutrients. Mammalian cells are eukaryotic, meaning the individual cells are more complex than bacterial cells, which are often used to teach simple cell culturing techniques.

This complexity also stems from the specialization of the different cells in the various organs and tissues. Mammalian cells are grouped into cell types depending on their origin, function and morphology.

Morphology of a cell determines how it is grown in cell culture. Most cells can be grouped by one of two growth conditions – adherent or suspension.

  • Adherent cells are grown on a flat surface where they adhere and grow to occupy the surface they are seeded upon.
  • Suspension cells are free-floating in solution and occupy the entire three-dimensional volume of the culture vessel.

Matching a cell’s growth condition to a culture vessel is critical to proper and effective mammalian cell culture.

Uses for mammalian cell culture

Understanding cell biology is the key driving factor of all biotechnical advancements, especially in research and medicine. Damage can occur to any of the body cells as a result of disease and injury. A deep understanding of cell biology and cell types allows researchers and scientists to develop appropriate treatment methods.

Additionally, research into mammalian cell structure can be utilized in the following ways.

  • Production of biological products such as antibodies, enzymes, hormones, etc.Recombinant antibody expression combines cutting edge molecular biology techniques with mammalian cell culture to create antibody products superior in purity and scalability to those produced using traditional methods. Using cell culture for the controlled production of biological molecules has opened up new opportunities for research and medicine that were once much less accessible.
  • Manufacture of vaccines to protect people from viral and bacterial diseases.One of the most important research models in any biological field and medicine is the in-vitro study of mammalian cells. Mammalian cell culture has been used for the development and manufacture of vaccines, which has a massive positive impact on public health. Even though it requires specialized tools and rigorous antiseptic measures to ensure no cross-contamination occurs, the proven benefits and potential promise of their application are boundless.

Understanding Cell Culture Media

Understanding Cell Culture Media

Scientists who perform laboratory research in the life sciences need to produce conditions in the lab that cater to the survival and/or growth of living cells. This is where cell culture media comes in.

At Cell Culture Company, we implement a well-tested, proven system that facilitates the acceptance of cell lines into our manufacturing center for multiplication and growth. Our system keeps the identity of your cell line protected and utilizes mycoplasma screening to confirm your cells are safe to work with in our facility and production process.

What is Cell Culture Media?

Another name for cell culture media is growth media. This term refers to any liquid or gel developed to help facilitate the growth of cells in an artificial setting. This artificial environment is essential for cells, tissues, and organs scientists remove from living creatures, if they are to remain viable. Cell culture technology relies on culture medium in the support of in vitro cellular research. This medium is the source of nutrients cell cultures need to survive and multiply. It also provides proper pH and osmolality, which is the concentration of dissolved particles of minerals and chemicals.

When selecting a proper growth medium, scientists must factor in the type of cells involved. The types of cell culture media chosen must be based on a variety of factors, including whether the cells are from mammals, insects, plants, viruses, bacteria, or yeast. Results of experiments depend on the correct choice of cell culture medium.

Elements of Cell Culture Media

Cell culture media consist of a mixture of nutrients and compounds designed to help promote the growth of cells. Common components of cell culture media include amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, basic and trace elements, inorganic salts, hormones, serum, buffering systems, and antibiotics.

Types of Cell Culture Media

There are two major categories of cell culture media – natural and synthetic. Natural media come from animal body fluids or tissue extraction, and may include tissue extracts, biological fluids, and clots or coagulants. Synthetic media, also referred to as artificial media, are produced using various compounds (organic and inorganic).

For information about the services we offer to our clients in the fields of genomics, diagnostics, point-of-care, research, and genetic engineering, call us today at 763.786.0302 or complete our contact form.