An Introduction to Insect Cell Culture

When it comes to heterologous protein expression, insect cell culture is often the preferred choice. Whether for basic research or large-scale production, insect cells have the capability of expressing large numbers of proteins that possess intricate post-translational changes. Insect cell cultures are used extensively for studies involving microbial pathology, developmental biology, and cell physiology. At Cell Culture Company, we promote medical research advancements in antibody production which support the creation of treatments that meet various patient health needs.

Insect Cell Lines

The study of insect viruses utilizes the essential tool of insect cell culture. The initial cell cultures were started around 1960 from insects. From that time, over 600 insect cell lines have stemmed from more than 100 species of insects – most of these having come from dipteran (flies and mosquitoes) and lepidopteran (moths) insects.

The most extensively used among these are the Trichoplusia ni High Five, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9, and Drosophila S2 cell lines. The first two are vulnerable to certain viruses that are utilized for the expression of foreign genes. An example of this is for vaccine production to generate proteins for crystallography or functional analysis and to generate gene delivery vectors for mammalian cells.

Recombinant Protein Production With Insect Cell Lines

The system of insect cell culture-based protein expression is easy to scale up and inexpensive. Since they are eukaryotic, insect cells enable proper folding and post-translational modification. This purified protein can even have therapeutic uses. The easy purification process allows for a high level of purity, specifically during the secretion of recombinant protein in the cell culture medium.

Insect cell lines functioning as production hosts are a new and developing technology for the development of biopharmaceuticals. Currently, there are over 100 of these cell lines accessible for the production of recombinant protein, originating from various moth and worm species being particularly noteworthy.

To learn about cell culture and antibody production services we offer at Cell Culture Company, give us a call today at 763.786.0302 or reach us through our contact form.

What are Hybridoma Cells?

Hybridoma cells are most commonly used in the production of monoclonal antibodies, which are used in a variety of applications such as cancer diagnosis, drug development, and immunotherapy. The process of creating hybridoma cells is complex and involves several steps. First, a myeloma cell is fused with a B-lymphocyte cell using a technique called somatic cell fusion. The resulting hybrid cells are then placed in a culture medium and allowed to grow. As the cells continue to divide, they produce more and more antibodies. These antibodies can then be isolated and purified for use in many applications.

Advantages of Hybridoma Cell Culture:

The advantages of hybridoma cell culture are numerous. For one, the hybridoma cells can be genetically modified to produce custom antibodies that can be used to target specific diseases or antigens. Additionally, hybridoma cell culture is relatively easy to set up and maintain, making it a cost-effective option. Furthermore, the hybridoma cells produce high yields of antibodies and are relatively stable over long periods of time.

Drawbacks

Despite these advantages, hybridoma cell culture has some drawbacks. The process of creating hybridoma cells is expensive and time-consuming, making it a cost-prohibitive barrier for applications other than commercial production. Traditional methods for retrieving these antibodies relies on the use of animals in a laboratory setting, however the work we do at Cell Culture Company removes the need for this highly variable and archaic approach..

Overall, hybridoma cell culture is an important tool in the production of monoclonal antibodies, which are used in a variety of applications. By understanding the process of hybridoma cell culture and its advantages and disadvantages, scientists can make informed decisions about how best to use this technology.

Cell Culture Company is your trusted source for reliable hybridoma cell culture services. Our extensive experience of over 40 years in producing hybridoma cells will save you time and hassle, while giving you the confidence that your project will be handled with exceptional expertise.

Proteomics and Cell Culture

The term, proteome, has reference to the total quantity of proteins present at any given time in a cell, tissue, or organism. The total number of these proteins can vary over time and between types of cells and conditions of growth because of the variations in gene expression. Proteomics is a quickly advancing sector in the broader field of molecular biology that focuses on the high throughput, yet organized and efficient approach to the analysis of protein expressions in a cell or organism. Proteomics studies typically provide results in the form of protein content inventories of proteins differentially expressed throughout various conditions. At Cell Culture Company, we support proteomics research.

The Function of Proteomics

Proteomics evaluates the actions, changes, and exchanges within protein complexes, which establishes their function. The importance of proteins within systems of cells cannot be overstated. They provide structural elements, maintain metabolic processes, and are key in regulating gene expression, operating as signal initiators or receptors and composing the subsequent products.

A cell reacts to external and internal modifications by regulating the level and activity of its proteins. As a result, changes in the proteome reveal a picture of the activity of the cell. Proteomics allows for the knowledge and understanding of the operation, structure, and interactions of all of the protein content in a particular organism.

Proteomics involves various areas of study today, including protein function, protein interaction, protein localization, and protein modification. The main objective of proteomics is to identify all of the proteins in a cell and produce a comprehensive 3D cell map that pinpoints their specific locations and distributions.

Proteomics and Genomics

Proteomics uses various methodologies in the study of functional genomics and disease models, including mass spectrometry, sequencing, and immunoassays. Post-translational modifications are recognized in this area of research.

Proteomics often involves a parallel line of study with genomics. Genomics begins with a gene for the purposes of making conclusions about its proteins. On the other hand proteomics starts with a protein that is functionally modified and proceeds backwards to the gene which produced it.

For information about our services related to proteomics and cell culture work, call us today at 763.786.0302 or reach us through our contact form.

What Is the Cell Line Development Process?

The cell line development process is essential in determining the efficiency of finding new drugs, toxicity, and in-vitro testing. This process reduces cost, effort, and time, which reduces the possibility of drug failure during clinical trials. During the cell line development process, recombinant proteins are produced. These include bi-specific and monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, fusion proteins, enzymes, growth factors, and innovative ways of developing immunotherapies for cancer treatment. At Cell Culture Company, we offer production services for various antibodies, including monoclonal and recombinant, as part of the cell line development process.

Faster Cell Line Development

In an effort to bring down the costs of cell line development, researchers have been pressured to find ways to advance through the early steps of biotherapeutic discovery and candidate selection. Efficiency in this process is achieved through the quick production and selection of cell lines that provide quality recombinant protein in high concentrations, while eliminating clone candidates that are prone to fail as soon as possible.

Cell line development technological advancements have boosted the testing of various drug candidates during the early stages of development, resulting in time and cost efficiencies. Also, companies working on cell line development projects and drug discovery have been collaborating together, resulting in the growth of the cell line development industry.

Cell Line Development Process

The process of cell line development encompasses the following steps:

Transfection

This is the process of bringing together a foreign DNA with a host cell. When the foreign DNA is incorporated into the genome of a small population of cells that enables them to express recombinant protein over an extended period of time, this group of cells are identified as stably transfected cells.

Antibodies Screening and Titer Ranking

From the transfected pool of cells, a discovery and selection of high-value clones is performed. The chance of discovering a high producer or high affinity-binder is done through screening large populations by quantifying protein-of-interest cell surface expression or secreting antibodies (titer ranking).

Single-cell Isolation and Viability of Cells

In order to ensure the cell population is identical genetically and the heterogeneity of expression is markedly reduced, it is necessary to isolate and clone single, viable cells.

Monoclonality Assurance

From the perspective of quality and regulatory adherence, it is vital to ensure the cell line is monoclonal, meaning it originates from only one progenitor during the development of cell lines for biotherapeutics. Monoclonality must be documented in the production of therapeutic cell lines as a regulatory requirement, and this is usually an image-based documentation in which recording of a single cell image is taken and added to the regulatory filings.

Clone Productivity Screening and Titer

This test determines the quantity of recombinant antibodies or proteins generated from a cell line derived through cloning.

To learn about our antibody production processes at Cell Culture Company, give us a call today at 763.786.0302 or use our contact form to leave us a message.

Why Recombinant Antibodies Are the Next Step Up in Antibody Technology

Biomedical research has made great advancements through the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in various experimental applications. However, each of these types of antibodies has its own weaknesses and limitations, which have led numerous researchers to prefer recombinant antibodies. At Cell Culture Company, our recombinant antibody production capabilities enable us to assist our customers in their advancement of medical research and development of treatments that meet the unique health needs of patients.

Shortcomings of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies

The use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in experiments has revealed some inconsistent results, including issues related to reproducibility when utilizing animals. Variations between batches and non-specific antibody binding were observed. These variations in results are to be expected for polyclonal antibodies since they originate from animal serum and each new batch is produced from a different immunization or animal. However, the variations have also been noticed with monoclonal antibody production. Therefore, a new form of antibodies has been sought – and that is where recombinant antibodies come in.

Recombinant Antibodies – The Future

As a type of monoclonal antibody, recombinant antibodies are produced in-vitro using a synthetic gene without creating hybridomas or immunizing animals.

Any species of animals that produces antibodies may be used to clone recombinant antibodies. Modification of the sequence is possible after it has been cloned, which gives recombinant antibodies a distinct advantage.

There are a number of advantages recombinant antibodies have over monoclonal antibodies. These include:

  • The time required to produce recombinant antibodies is much shorter, often just a few weeks compared to months for the production of effective antibodies from hybridomas.
  • Their technology is reproducible. They are more reproducible and reliable than monoclonal antibodies since the sequence of the recombinant antibody gene is known and cloned.
  • The production of recombinant antibodies uses animal-free technology, relieving concerns about complying with rules around the world related to animal experimentation.

The shorter turnaround time involved with the production of recombinant antibodies and the complete control over the antibody sequence makes them ideal for diagnostics, therapeutics, and research.

For information about our recombinant antibody production capabilities at Cell Culture Company, call us today at 763.786.0302 or reach us through our contact form.